Science Benchmark
Cells are the basic unit of life. All living things are composed of one or more cells that come from preexisting cells. Cells perform a variety of functions necessary to maintain homeostasis and life. The structure and function of a cell determines the cell's role in an organism. Living cells are composed of chemical elements and molecules that form large, complex molecules. These molecules form the basis for the structure and function of cells.

Resource for Standard 2:

Learning goal that needs to be filled out for every objective:

Rubrics for objectives:

You will be creating your own unless otherwise told.

Objective 1: Describe the fundamental chemistry of living cells.

a. List the major chemical elements in cells (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfur, trace elements).

b. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids).

c. Explain how the properties of water (e.g., cohesion, adhesion, heat capacity, solvent properties) contribute to maintenance of cells and living organisms.

d. Explain the role of enzymes in cell chemistry.

Objective 2: Describe the flow of energy and matter in cellular function.

a. Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic cells.

b. Illustrate the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through photosynthesis (e.g., by using light energy to combine CO2 and H2O to produce oxygen and sugars) and respiration (e.g., by releasing energy from sugar and O2 to produce CO2 and H2O).

c. Measure the production of one or more of the products of either photosynthesis or respiration.

Objective 3: Investigate the structure and function of cells and cell parts.

a. Explain how cells divide from existing cells.

b. Describe cell theory and relate the nature of science to the development of cell theory (e.g., built upon previous knowledge, use of increasingly more sophisticated technology).

c. Describe how the transport of materials in and out of cells enables cells to maintain homeostasis (i.e., osmosis, diffusion, active transport).

d. Describe the relationship between the organelles in a cell and the functions of that cell.

e. Experiment with microorganisms and/or plants to investigate growth and reproduction.


Standard 2 video lectures:

S2O1a (14-15): (4:19)

Obj 1 a: Even though it says S1O1a on video this is the correct one I just labeled it incorrectly:

S2O1b (14-15):

Obj 1 b: Macromolecules:

S2O1c water(14-15):

Obj 1 c Properties of Water:

S2O1d enzymes (14-15):

Obj 1 d Enzymes and Chemical Reactions:

S2O2a (14-15) Heterotrophs and Autotrophs:

S2O2b (14-15) ATP energy of cells:

Photosynthesis Chap 8 S2O2b: (14-15)

S2O2b Photosynthesis(14-15):

S202b Cellular Respiration(14-15):

Obj 2 a & b Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Photosynthesis:

Obj 2 c Cellular Respiration:

S2O3a 14-15 video lecture:

S2O3 b Intro to Cells:

S2O3a Cell Division Mitosis:

S2O3 c& D (14-15):

S2O3c Cell Structure and Organelles & Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic:

S2O3d Cell Transport:


Language science students should use: organelles, photosynthesis, respiration, cellular respiration, osmosis, diffusion, active transport, homeostasis, cell theory, organic, carbohydrate, fermentation, protein, fat, nucleic acid, enzyme, chlorophyll, cell membrane, nucleus, cell wall, solvent, solute, adhesion, cohesion, microorganism